VT Medical - шаблон joomla Книги
  • VTEM Image Show
  • VTEM Image Show
  • VTEM Image Show

Ze świata nauki - krzem

Rozpocznijmy rozważania przytaczając badania absorpcji Krzemu

Ta część informacji przekazana jest w języku angielskim.
Dalszą część informacji można przeczytać w języku polskim.

The Absorption of Silicon from LLR-G5 in Human Volunteers
Report by: Professor Jonathan Powell, Cambridge.

The organic silicon (Si) supplement, LLR-G5, is available as a dilute liquid in 1 L bottles but, like all Si supplements, its efficacy is poorly understood.

Silicon is thought to be involved in the formation and maturation of collagen and other connective tissue glycoproteins. Hence, bone, skin, and vasculature are currently the major tissues of interest when considering the biological activity of silicon, although there is also increasing interest in the protective effects of silicon on brain function. Silicon is relatively well absorbed from the diet (a mean of 41 - 36%, Jugdaohsingh et al. 2002) and on average about 30 mg are ingested per person/day in the Western World. Cereals, rice and some fruits and vegetables, as well as drinking water, are the major dietary sources. Nonetheless intakes vary greatly amongst individuals and, for example, 20% of women ingested less than 14 mg/day in a recent USA-based survey (Jugdaohsingh et al. 2004).

A great many Si supplements are available but bioavailability (here meaning absorption into the body) is questionable for most. Either data do not exist or the silicon is polymerised and very poorly absorbed. Ensuring delivery of Si into the blood stream, following an oral supplemental dose, is the first step in understanding efficacy. Here, the absorption of Si from G5 has been studied in human volunteers and, as in many previous studies, urinary output has been used as a proxy for absorption (Reffitt et al. 1999).


Study aims

The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of Si, namely LLR-G5, in healthy volunteers.


Water was ultrapure (18 M cm-1) from an Elga water purifier (Elga Ltd, High Wycombe, UK). Monomethyl silanetriol was from LLR-G5 Ltd. Nitric acid (65% (w/v) HNO3) was high purity from Fluka Ltd (Gillingham, UK). Polypropylene bottles were from VWR International Ltd (Poole, UK).

Polypropylene transport tubes, pre-washed with UHP water and dried before use for blood samples were from Medfor Products (Farnborough, UK). Polypropylene Mauser bottles (2.5 L) for urine collection were from Aldrich Chemical Co (Gillingham, UK).

Mauser polypropylene bottles were cleaned with 10% (v/v) HNO3 (AnalaR; BDH Ltd, UK) for 24 h then thoroughly rinsed with UHP water, air dried in a class J clean air room, and preweighed prior to use. These containers were used throughout the study to avoid Si contamination. All intravenous cannulae (1.245 mm) were from Johnson & Johnson Medical (Pomezia, Italy). Syringes were from Terumo Europe N.V. (Leuven, Belgium). Pasteur pipettes (3.5 ml), used for sample transfer, were from Greiner Bio-One Limited (Stonehouse, UK).



Fifteen healthy volunteers (7 male and 8 female) with normal renal function, assessed by serum levels of creatinine (Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, St. Thomas Hospital) were recruited from King s College London (London, UK) and the Rayne Institute (St Thomas Hospital, London, UK). Demographics of the subjects are given in Table 1.

Subjects fasted overnight from 2200 hrs and remained fasted until 1430 hrs the following day, except for the ingestion of the test solution and the UHP water that was supplied, at 0800 hrs and 1100 hrs, respectively. They avoided high Sicontaining foods (beer, cereals, and certain vegetables and fruit) 24 h before the studyday. The study was approved by King s College London Local Research Ethics Committee, and the subjects gave their written consent prior to the start of the study.


Study design

Subjects fasted overnight from 2200 hours prior to each study day. At 0800 hours on day 1, the fasted subjects emptied their bladders and thereafter collected urine for 3 h (i.e. 0800-1100 hours) for a baseline Si measurement using a pre-weighed container.Subjects ingested 1 litre ultra-high purity (UHP) water over this period and returned to their normal eating habits thereafter, but avoided foods high in Si as mentioned above.At 0800 hours on day 2, the same fasted subjects emptied their bladders and ingested 60 ml LLR-G5 supplement. Subjects then collected urine in two 3 h collections from 0800 hours (i.e. 0800-1100 hours and 1100-1400 hours) using separate pre-weighed containers. A subset of the fasted subjects (n=10) also had an indwelling cannula inserted into a forearm vein before ingestion of the LLR-G5 supplement. Two bloodsamples (10 ml each) were taken at baseline (for pre-dose/baseline levels) and then at 30 min intervals for the first 2 h and then at 1 h intervals for the remaining 4 h for the first three subjects as a Pilot study. In the remaining seven subjects, blood samples were collected at baseline and then, after ingestion of LLR-G5, also at 5 min, 15min, 30 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 3h, and 6h so that the peak increase in serum Si could be better observed in the first half hour period. Subjects remained fasted during the whole 6 h period except for the ingestion of 1 litre UHP water during each 3 h period.


Sample preparation

Blood samples.

Clotted blood samples were centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 min at 20 C. Sera were then separated into 10 ml polypropylene tubes and stored at 20 C until Si analysis. All preparation was conducted in a class C laminar clean air cabinet.

Urine samples.

The urine collections were weighed to determine output and a 10-30 ml homogenous aliquot collected into polypropylene bottles and diluted with equivolume 0.7% (v/v) HNO3 to reduce any recipitation on storage (Burden et al. 1995).Diluted urine samples were stored at 4 C until Si analysis (see below).

Again, however, the mean peak increase in serum Si (317.17 - 52.49 g/l) was found at 30 min following ingestion of LLR-G5. However, one of the subjects fainted during the study and their result is shown separately in Figure 3 because fainting may cause a delay in gastric emptying and/or excretion which could have lead to a later and/or longer peak of serum Si following the ingestion of LLR-G5.The urinary results reflected the serum results (Figure 4). Mean baseline urinary Si was 0.88 - 0.37 mg/3h before ingestion of LLR-G5. Urinary Si was significantly increased after the ingestion of LLR-G5 with a peak increase (4.07 - 0.78 mg/3h) during the first three hours after ingestion. After adjusting for the amount of ingested Si (60 ml at 115 mg/l = 6.9 mg), the percentage increase in urinary excretion of Si over the 6 h period after the ingestion of G5 was 63.91 - 18.18% excluding the data from the subject who fainted, which is shown separately in Figure 5.


Silicon analysis

Analysis for total Si was conducted by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES, Jobin Yvon JY 24, Instrument SA Longjumeau, France) with a V-groove nebuliser and Scott-type double pass spray chamber at 251.611 nm.

Analysis was by peak profile with a window size of 0.1 nm, 54 increments per profile and an integration time of 0.5 s for urine and 0.3 s for sera and LLR-G5 solution (Sripanyakorn et al. 2004). Sample flow rate was 1 ml/min. Sample-based standard solutions were used (i.e. UHP water, pooled diluted serum or pooled diluted urine spiked with Si from a standard ICP solution).

Prior to Si analysis, LLR-G5 solution and serum samples were diluted 1: 200 and 1:5 respectively with UHP water and 0.25% (v/v) HNO3. The diluted urine samples were incubated in their closed containers at 40 C overnight in an oven to dissolve any precipitate and then cooled to room temperature before analysis (Burden et al. 1995).

Diluted LLR-G5, sera and urine samples were analysed at least in duplicate. Detection limit for measurement of Si was 5 μg/l in UHP water or aqueous 0.25-0.7% (v/v) HNO3. Since LLR-G5, serum and urine samples were diluted 1:200, 1:5 and 1:2, respectively, detection limits for Si in the original undiluted samples were 1 mg/l, 25 μg/l and 10 μg/l for LLR-G5, serum and urine, respectively.

As serum and urine samples were diluted with 0.25-0.7% nitric acid, contamination of Si in the acid wasalso measured by preparing and analysing the acid identically to serum and urine samples. Although minor, this contaminant Si was subtracted from the samples.



In the pilot study, serum silicon significantly increased following ingestion of the LLR-G5 supplement with a mean peak at the first half an hour after ingestion (334.34 - 43.52 g/l, Figure 1). Silicon levels then fell and reached baseline 3 hours after ingestion of LLR-G5. For the next seven subjects blood samples were collected more frequently during the first 1 hour after ingestion of LLR-G5 to identify better the peak increase in serum Si (Figure 2).


The absorption of Si from LLR-G5 is high (circa 60% overall but up to 70% in some individuals) and is considerably higher than for colloidal silicon supplements and also other known silicon supplements (Calomme et al. 1998 and Sripanyakorn 2005).

Report prepared and completed by Professor Jonathan Powell.



Burden TR, Powell JJ, Thompson RPH. (1995). Optimal accuracy, precision and sensitivity of inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry: bioanalysis of aluminium. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 10, 259-266.

Calomme MR, Cos P, D'Haese PC, Vingerhoets R, Lamberts LV, De Broe ME, Van Hoorebeke C, Vanden Berghe DA. (1998). Absorption of silicon in healthy subjects. In Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine. Collery P, Brätter P, Negretti de Brätter, etal., eds., Paris, John Libbey Eurotext, pp 228-232.

Jugdaohsingh R, Anderson SH, Tucker KL, Elliott H, Kiel DP, Thompson RP, Powell JJ. (2002). Dietary silicon intake and absorption. American Journal of ClinicalNutrition 75, 887-893.

Jugdaohsingh R, Tucker KL, Qiao N, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Powell JJ. (2004). Dietary silicon intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and pre-menopausal women of the Framingham Offspring cohort. Journal of Bone andMineral Research 19, 297-307.

Reffitt DM, Jugdaohsingh R, Thompson RPH, Powell JJ. (1999). Silicic acid: its gastrointestinal uptake and urinary excretion in man and effects on aluminium excretion. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 76, 141-147.

Sripanyakorn S. (2005). PhD thesis: Dietary silicon and bone health. University of London.


Dla osób zainetresowanych badaniami nad wpływem krzemu na zdrowie człowieka, w których brał udział Professor Jonathan Powell, podajemy link w języku angielskim: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/75/5/887


Istnieje wystarczająco dużo faktów wykazujących, że krzem jest niezbędny do formowania i utrzymywania zdrowych kości, mózgu i arterii krwionośnych i dlatego też, ma wpływ na choroby związane z tymi tkankami.
Przez bardzo długi okres czasu podejrzewano, że krzem odgrywa ważną rolę w utrzymywaniu ludzkiego zdrowia (3).
Zanim poznano rolę krzemu w biologii, jedna z najbardziej znanych osób w świecie medycznym, Louis Pasteur, przewidział, że krzem mógłby być ważną substancją terapeutyczną w przypadku wielu chorób.
Na początku ubiegłego stulecia, wiele raportów francuskich i niemieckich sugerowało, że przewidywania Pasteura mogłyby stać się faktem. Raporty te opisywały terapeutyczne sukcesy, w przypadkach wielu chorób (włączywszy arteriosklerozę, nadciśnienie, choroby skóry), przy użyciu prostego związku organicznego krzemu i herbaty sporządzonej ze skrzypu.
Do roku 1930 znaczenie krzemu w medycynie wygasło z powodu braku wiedzy na temat biologicznej aktywności krzemu.
Przez następne 40 lat, krzem, spożywany w diecie, uważany był za biologicznie obojętny, nieważny dla żywych organizmów, z wyjątkiem niektórych niższych form życia jak; diatoms, radiolarians i gąbek, w których krzemionka odgrywała rolę strukturalną.
W 1972 roku stwierdzono, że krzem jest niezbędny w czasie formowania się kości (5). Mniej więcej w tym samym czasie w innych raportach sugerowano, że niewystarczająca ilość krzemu w diecie może być jednym z czynników w przypadkach arteriosklerozy i nadciśnienia, oraz w przypadkach niektórych chorób kości i procesu starzenia się (6).
Od tego czasu, okresowo pojawiające się raporty popierały tezę, że krzem jest ważnym składnikiem odżywczym, zapobiegającym powstawaniu chorób związanych z procesami starzenia się.
Raporty te w zadziwiający sposób były ignorowane przez specjalistów klinicznych i dietetyków.
Dwudziestoletnia batalia o uznanie odżywczej ważności krzemu, zwyciężona została przez Dr. Edith Carlisle (5-10).


Biochemia Krzemu

Związki krzemo-organiczne są analogiczne do związków węglo-organicznych (19), dlatego też prawdopodobieństwo życia opartego o krzem, analogicznego do życia opartego o węgiel, stało się ideą pisarzy futurystów.
Poparciem tej możliwości mógłby być fakt zamiany węgla na krzem w biochemicznych procesach zachodzących w bakteriach (11).
Krzem tworzy wiązanie Si-O-C z silnym elementem zjonizowania, który może być przetransferowany z atomu tlenu na inny atom, z jedynie niewielka zmianą energetyczną, i dlatego połączenie Si-O działa jako mechanizm przelaczeniowy (19). Również możliwe jest połączenie wodoru przez ta grupę.
Na przykład; wodorowe połączenie pomiędzy kwasem krzemowym i związkami zawierającymi grupy wodorotlenkowe, może być wystarczająco stabilne aby być ważnym, jako dodatkowa struktura, w bio-polimerach takich jak kolagen.
Zarówno w zwierzętach jak i w ludziach stwierdzono krzem występujący w wolnej formie jak również i w związkach.
Kwas krzemowy należy prawdopodobnie do formy wolnej.


Krzem i Kości

Nieodpowiednia ilość krzemu powoduje u zwierząt nienormalny rozwój kości (5-8, 19). U kurcząt z niedoborem krzemu, stwierdzono cieńszą średnicę nóg i zredukowaną elastyczność.
Kurczaki i szczury z niedoborem krzemu mają zdeformowane czaszki, strukturalnie wykazujące prymitywne, niedojrzałe kości.
Rozmieszczenie krzemu i zmiany biochemiczne spowodowane przez niedobory krzemu w kościach, wykazują, że krzem ma wpływ na kształtowanie się masy kostnej i jej wapnienie.
Carlisle stwierdziła, że krzem rozmieszczony jest w obszarach aktywnego wzrostu w kościach młodych myszy i szczurów (6-8).
Badaczka stwierdziła również iż w kościach bardziej dojrzałych, ilość krzemu jest mniejsza (6-8). Z początku w tkance kostnej ilość krzemu i wapnia rośnie w miarę postepowania procesów mineralizacji, ale w bardzo zaawansowanym stadium mineralizacji ilość krzemu spada.
Procedury ekstrakcji i oczyszczania ukazują, że krzem jest związany organicznie w kilku typach tkanki łącznej (6-8).
Dodatkowe spostrzeżenia sugerują, że krzem ma wpływ na fosfor w organicznej fazie prowadzącej do wapnienia (7). Krzem zezwala na połączenie cząstek fosfo-protein i kolagenu, które odgrywają rolę w wapnieniu i regulowaniu wzrostu kryształów.
W ostatnich latach opisano duża liczbę konstrukcji dużych pozakomorkowych makro-molekół, zawierających pochodne glukozaminy i sacharydów (14).
Niektóre z nich zabezpieczają komunikację pomiędzy komórkami i ich otoczeniem, pozwalające komórkom monitorować skład i właściwości otoczenia i reagować na zmiany.
W oparciu o znaczną ilość dowodów, nagromadzonych do dzisiaj, nie ma wątpliwości, że niedobór krzemu wpływa na zdrowie.
Ponieważ krzem wpływa na rozpoczęcie i szybkość wapnienia kości, może być ważnym czynnikiem w chorobach charakteryzujących się nierównowagą pomiędzy tworzeniem się i rozpadem kości.
Nawet więcej, ponieważ krzem wpływa na skład miazgi, niewystarczające jego spożycie w konsekwencji może spowodować choroby stawów.

Krzem i Mózg

Szczury karmione dietą nisko-wapniową, gromadziły dużą ilość aluminium we wszystkich obszarach mózgu, w przypadku gdy zawartość aluminium była duża a ilość krzemu mała. Zawartość aluminium w niektórych rejonach mózgu była 14-sto, 5-cio, 4-ro krotnie większa niż u szczurów karmionych dietą z wystarczającą ilością wapnia (9).
Nie zaobserwowano wzrostu zawartości aluminium w mózgu przy diecie z małą ilością wapnia, dużą zawartością aluminium i dodatkiem krzemu do diety. Po 18 miesiącach, ilość aluminium w mózgu wzrosła również przy diecie z wystarczającą ilością wapnia przy niewystarczającej ilości krzemu.
W przypadku niewystarczającej ilości krzemu w diecie szczurów z chorą tarczycą, podawanie aluminium zmniejszyło zawartość cynku w mózgu, a nie zmniejszyło się gdy karmiono szczury dodatkami z krzemem (10).
Dodatkowym dowodem na to, ze krzem odgrywa ważną role w funkcjonowaniu mózgu jest jego schemat rozlokowania. Większe stężenie krzemu występuje w mózgu niż w plazmie. Koncentracja krzemu w mózgu jest rożna w zależności od rejonów występowania(9).
Analiza elektronowa skorelowała krzem z wapniem i fosforem w mózgu (15).
Zalezność pomiedzy wapniem i krzemem była dyskutowana wczesniej.
Biochemiczna relacja pomiedzy fosforem i krzemem może dotyczyc specyficznych protein (18). Krzem wplywa na gospodarkę fosforem w tych proteinach.
Choroba Alzheimera połączona jest ze wzrostem koncentracji aluminium w mózgu. W tym przypadku, równowaga wapniowa, wbudowywanie fosforu do protein i metabolizm żelaza w membranach w niektórych neuronach, jest zakłócony.
Być może, ponieważ krzem jest korelowany z wapniem i fosforem w mózgu, pozbawianie krzemu, w szczególności gdy w diecie jest mało wapnia, powoduje proces podobny do choroby Alzheimera. To znaczy zmienia się bariera krew-mózg, pozwalając na wejście aluminium i jego akumulację w komórkach nerwowych, gdy koncentracja aluminium jest duża.
Zgromadzone fakty jasno wykazują, że krzem jest niezbędny w celu zabezpieczenia przed chorobliwymi zmianami w mózgu, w szczególności w przypadku niskiej zawartości wapnia, wysokiej zawartości aluminium w diecie i/lub niewłaściwej pracy tarczycy.
Dlatego też niedożywienie krzemem, w konsekwencji, może być przyczyną starzenia się i procesów chorobowych wpływających na mózg.

Krzem i Krew

Ponieważ arterie krwionośne zawierają pochodne glukozaminy oraz kolagen, na które ma wpływ niedobór krzemu, nie budzi zdziwienia fakt, że łączono krzem z utrzymaniem prawidłowo zbudowanego układu krwionośnego i zabezpieczeniem przed arteriosklerozą (2,16,20).
Pierwsze sugestie, że krzem może być pomocny w ochronie przed chorobami układu krwionośnego, pojawiły się w 1911 roku.
Od 1965 roku, odkryto wiele faktów popierających tą sugestię.
Francuscy badacze przedstawiali, że ilość krzemu w normalnej ludzkiej aorcie spada znacząco z wiekiem, i że stężenie krzemu w ściankach arterii krwionośnych zmniejsza się wraz z rozwojem arteriosklerozy (16).
Również, spowodowanie przewężeń w przewodach krwionośnych u królików, przez nadmierną ilość cholesterolu w diecie, powodowały spadek stężenia krzemu w aorcie.
Suplementacja krzemem spowalniała ten spadek i zmniejszała lub opóźniała pojawienie się zatorów.
Inne obserwacje popierające koncepcje, iż odżywcze właściwości krzemu są ważne dla utrzymania zdrowia arterii krwionośnych, to odwrotna relacja pomiedzy stężeniem kwasu krzemowego w wodzie pitnej i pojawianiem się chorób układu krwionośnego w Finlandii (20).
Badania na zwierzętach wykazały, że arterie krwionośne u starych szczurów z chronicznym nadciśnieniem, zawierają relatywnie małą ilość krzemu i posiadają braki włókien kolagenowych, które wymagają bogatej w krzem substancji na ich budowę (2).
Sugerowano korzystną rolę krzemu w uniknięciu tworzenia się zatorów miażdżycowych, aby mieć pewność spójności i elastyczności włókien a wiec nieprzepuszczalności ścianek arterii krwionośnych dla tłuszczów i odkładania się wapnia (16).
Sugestia ta jest poparta przez stwierdzenie, że krzem zabezpiecza przed wnikaniem barwników przez skórę królika (16).


Metabolizm Krzemu

Niewiele wiadomo na temat metabolizmu krzemu.
W rzeczywistości forma dodatku krzemowego decyduje o tym czy zaistnieje dobra absorpcja.
W badaniach, ludzie absorbowali jedynie około 1% z dużej dawki pochodnej kwasu krzemowego, a znacznie więcej bo aż 70% ze specjalnych preparatów krzemowych.
Dowodem na to, że niektóre formy krzemu są dobrze absorbowane jest fakt, że dzienna ilość krzemu w moczu wynosi 50% dziennej ilości spożytej.
Sugeruje się, że dzienne zapotrzebowanie na krzem mieści się w granicach 20 do 50 mg (17).
Ilość krzemu w moczu wykazuje, że eliminacja zaabsorbowanego krzemu odbywa się głownie przez mocz, gdzie znajduje się on (prawdopodobnie) w postaci soli magnezowej kwasu krzemowego (4)

Warta zauważenia jest praca:
Calomme M, Vanden Berghe Dirk: "Supplementation of calves with stabilized orthosilic acid: effect on the Si, Ca, Mg, and P concentration in serum and the collagen concentration in skin and cartilage" In: Biological trace elements research, 56, p.153-165, 1997

Praca ta wyjaśnia wpływ, dodawania do diety cieląt, stabilizowanego kwasu krzemowego, na zawartość krzemu, wapnia, magnezu i fosforu we krwi i zawartość kolagenu w skórze i stawach.
Nowe prace badawcze popierające rolę krzemu w formowaniu się kości:
Dwie nowe prace badawcze opublikowane w piśmie medycznym BONE, potwierdzają teorię, że krzem, drugi co do występowania w skorupie ziemskiej pierwiastek, odgrywa ważną rolę w formowaniu się kości.
W pierwszej pracy, naukowcy stwierdzili, że krzem (w formie kwasu krzemowego) może mieć stymulujący efekt na formowanie się kości w ciele człowieka (23). "Kwas ortokrzemowy w stężeniu fizjologicznym pobudza syntezę kolagenu typu I w ludzkich komórkach kości" mówią naukowcy.
W innych studiach, naukowcy stwierdzili, że spożywanie krzemu, dało w wyniku, większą gęstość minerałową w kościach, w przypadku około 3000 amerykańskich mężczyzn i kobiet przed menopauza (ale nie kobiet po menopauzie) (24).
Według naukowców, krzem odgrywa rolę raczej w tworzeniu się kości niż w zapobieganiu ich rozkładowi.
W wywiadzie dla Live Extension, Dr Ravin Jugdaohsingh ze szpitala St. Thomas' Hospital w Londynie powiedział : "Krzem jest głównym składnikiem w ludzkiej diecie, którego ilość w niej niezwykle zmalała z powodu nowoczesnego przetwarzania i oczyszczania produktów spożywczych, manipulowania wodą i jej oczyszczaniem i hodowlą warzyw w środowisku hydroponicznym".
Badania na zwierzętach pokazują, że krzem jest ważny dla prawidłowego wzrostu i rozwoju, a w szczególności formowania się kości.
Aktualnie, prawie całe leczenie osteoporozy (lub zbyt malej masy kostnej) polega na redukowaniu rozpadu kości, ale żadne, z wyjątkiem hormonu tarczycy, nie polega na polepszeniu formowania się kości.
Dlatego też, krzem może zaoferować nowa formę terapii w przypadku zbyt malej masy kostnej lub osteoporozy, przez zwiększenie tworzenia się nowych kości.
Krzem również skojarzono z arteriosklerozą (mając właściwości przeciw arteriosklerotyczne) oraz z tkanką łączną i dlatego też może on dać szerokie korzyści w ludzkim zdrowiu.

Organic Silicon

Disclaimer: As with all remedies and supplements, individual response and reaction will vary, and will be influenced by external factors such as dietary input, overall health status, toxin overload etc. Pending the outcome of clinical trials we can only suggest that Organic Silicon's can be a useful input for many conditions, but it should not be considered a universal cure. Based on considerable anecdotal evidence and feedback from our own customers, Organic Silicon  is thought to balance the cells electrical potentials, and by inference, facilitate a potential healing response, but the final outcome of regular Organic Silicon supplementation will of course depend on individual factors.

Introduction There are many silica and silicon supplements on the market, but Organic Silicon is unique in its therapeutic ability to replenish the system with sufficient silicon to allow the body to accomplish its own healing. This product is especially suitable for delicate types, for those with a damaged nervous system, broken down types and hypersensitive types. Organic Silicon is best regarded as a general healing tonic, since it appears to facilitate a general healing response and move the body towards a more naturally balanced state. In this situation most health disorders have been seen to improve in many taking the product. Although we cannot control the order in which the body heals; so, if for example we take it for a skin condition we may find that after for example 3 months use, the skin condition has not improved (in many cases skin conditions improve rapidly), but the back complaint or the asthma that one also suffered from are much improved. For example it has been found that Organic Silicon is effective in treating 85% of asthma cases (see below), however, Organic Silicon is not a specific treatment for asthma. It is through its calming and stabilizing effect on the immune system (it may help all auto-immune disorders to some extent), its detoxifying effect on the lymphatic system and its beneficial effect on the adrenal glands and the liver that could explain is usefulness in the example condition discussed, i.e. asthma. Also, Organic Silicon is thought to correct electrical disturbance of cells as well as initiate cellular regeneration, this may account for its diverse effects as discussed in detail below.

Organic Silicon was initially developed to treat arthritis and psoriasis, and anecdotal reports indicate that it has helped to relieve pain and inflammation for many thousands of sufferers. Other users are frequently reporting that it relieves other ailments such as skin irritation, burns, sunburn, herpes and degenerative diseases affecting the joints.
Silica is the second most abundant element on earth. It is an essential element of living matter and humans have a critical need for this element. Silica is a vital mineral that is almost completely overlooked by mainstream nutritionists.
Silica in mineral form has been used therapeutically, but it was absorbed inefficiently into the human body. It had traditionally gained a place in the pantheon of herbal remedies, being present in horsetail fern, bamboo and some vegetables. Work since the 1930s on absorbable mineral and organic silica showed irrefutably that organic silica could be described as an essential nutrient for both humans and other animals. In studies during the 1970s, it was found that silica supplementation aided bone and cartilage growth. In 1993, it was reported that treatment with silica could stimulate bone formation. By the 1990s, silica formulations were being used by some pharmaceutical companies on wound and burn dressings because it was recognized that silica healed wounds more quickly and could stabilize burns.
We are born with an abundance of silica and relatively low amounts of calcium. Then with every advancement in chronological age, the amount of calcium increases and the amount of silica decreases within the body. Silica enhances the function of iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and boron, and is essential for bone development and growth. Bones need silica to re-calcify and to strengthen bone tissue. A silica deficiency in tissue causes a calcium deficiency which, in turn, results in a loss of tissue elasticity.

Silica is also one of the most important constituents of the body’s connective tissue, including cartilage, vascular lining, tendons, and ligaments. It is found in the thymus gland, the adrenal glands, the liver, the spleen, the pancreas and in considerable quantity in hair. It functions as a cross-linking agent, providing strength, flexibility, and resilience to collagen and elastin connective tissues. It is known to play a part in the integrity of the bones, arterial walls skin, teeth, gums, hair and nails, and has been used to alleviate eczema and psoriasis. Recently, modern research has focused on determining the role of silica in rheumatic disorders and arterial disease.
It is believed that silica prevents and helps rectify osteoporosis and in strengthening the musculoskeletal system, preventing injuries and speeding the healing of fractures. It is thought to do this by helping in the creation of the body’s structural matrix for forming and repairing connective tissue. It also contributes to the build-up of minerals on this matrix during development. Silica is present in osteoblasts (bone forming cells) responsible for the deposition of calcium phosphate on the protein matrix of bone. It stimulates chrondroblast or cartilage-forming cells to deposit proteins and other structural materials on the matrix. Finally, it helps in the building process of fiber-forming cells important to the creation of collagen.
Silica is thought to improve the cardiovascular system, decreasing the risk of coronary problems. It has been shown to be abundant (up to 14 times more) in the arteries of people who are free of heart disease. It is essential in maintaining the structural integrity, elasticity and permeability of the arteries, thereby regulating the blood pressure.
There is a relationship between silica and the rate of aluminium concentration in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. Much research points to the fact that a deficiency of silica in ones diet is the causal effect of an increase of aluminum in the body, and its ultimate accumulation into the synapses of the brain. Silica plays an important role in helping the body to eliminate this accumulation of aluminum, which is a causative factor in certain forms of senility, including Alzheimer’s disease.
Research shows that skeletal diseases such as osteomalacia (soft bones), and osteoporosis (porous bones and/or spontaneous fractures, as well as shrinkage) although caused by a calcium deficiency, do not respond to calcium therapy alone. Research conducted in Paris, France by noted biophysicists Louis Kervran, and in the United States by Dr. Richard Barmakian, shows that fractured bones did not heal at all when high amounts of calcium were present. They heal fair to poorly when moderate amounts of calcium were present. However, they heal extremely well when relatively low amounts of calcium were present with an abundance of silica. It has been shown that in bone demineralization, silica deficiency is a precursor to calcium deficiency.
Maintaining a healthy level of silica may overall retard the aging process. The average adult body requires the maintenance of about 20 grams of silica to promote good health. However, the body metabolizes and secretes about 10-40 mg. of silica per day through urination, hair loss and nail trimming. Thus, the body's natural level of silica declines with age causing signs of aging such as bone loss, dry and wrinkled skin, weakened teeth and gums and hair loss to occur.
Given the importance of silica in our diet, it is surprising that more people are not aware of it. Silica remains the missing element in many anti-aging programs of today. Mineral silica and organic silica As a mineral, silica is the second most common constituent of the Earth (27.8% in weight), oxygen being the first (46.6% in weight). Silica may be amorphous or crystallised in rocks such as granite and rock quartz, as well as in clays and sand grains. Organic silica is different from the mineral form. The organic form of silica is a component of living tissue, and occurs very often in plants, animals and human beings. In the human body it is found particularly in the tissues, cartilage and vascular walls, and in the thymus gland, the adrenals, liver, pancreas, spleen and so on. The role of Organic Silicon Until 1994, it had been necessary to activate the organic silica by adding small quantities of products used in allopathy or homeopathy, products which were chosen specifically for each illness being treated. These molecules could only be used in cutaneous applications. In 1994 Le Ribault perfected a new molecule which could be used, without any additive, in the treatment of many different diseases. Another important advance was that this molecule, absolutely non-toxic, can be taken orally. This is Organic Silicon, monomethylsilanetriol. The properties of Organic Silicon For years proof has been accumulating of the effectiveness of organic silica. With regard to Organic Silicon, its effectiveness is proved by tests in official laboratories and by many testimonies from doctors and patients, supported by a great variety of records (blood analyses, X-rays, photos, etc), and its use by more than 100,000 patients appear to show a wide range of characteristics;

  • It is completely non-toxic
  • It can be assimilated directly by the human organism and by animals and plants
  • It has a significant capacity to penetrate the skin and be diffused throughout the body, reaching those organs or areas suffering from pain, damage or malfunction
  • It plays a vital role in restructuring the fibres of elastene and collagen, in the early stages of bone mineralisation and in the metabolism in general
  • It accelerates the processes of cicatrisation and tissue healing
  • Appears to have powerful anti-inflammatory properties
  • It is believed that it strengthens the immune defenses of the organism
  • It is a very efficient pain-killer which acts within a few minutes, notably for joint pain, burns, cuts and stings (wasps, mosquitoes, nettles, jellyfish, etc)
  • It has no side-effects, even after being used for many years
  • It is compatible with any other treatment that may be prescribed

How does Organic Silicon work? How can a single molecule cure so many different conditions? It is impossible to give a precise answer to this question, but we offer a simple hypothesis which is the only reasonable explanation in view of what has been proved so far.

  • We know that when a cell function is disturbed, its polarities move slightly, so much of the disturbance in the organism is linked to this electrical maladjustment in the cells.
  • Studies with the scanning electron microscope prove that molecules of organic silica such as Organic Silicon are very unstable, especially when mixed with water. They are always changing shape, revolving continuously a hundred times a second. Under the SEM the molecule looks like a fern leaf, the prominent parts being the positive poles and the hollows the negative ones.
  • Thus it is probable that Organic Silicon acts in the organism to restore the polarity of the disturbed cells, supplying positive or negative charges as required so that the cells have the power they need to resist invasion or repair damage.

Why is Organic Silicon able to make rapid improvement in general health as well as curing the disease that is specifically treated?

  • There is conclusive evidence that organic silica plays a vital part in the general health of the human organism.
  • We know that the amount present in the body decreases with age.
  • We also know that this loss cannot be prevented because the body can only assimilate silica in its organic form and cannot obtain it from the mineral form.
  • The results obtained by drinking Organic Silicon show that it can be assimilated and that it replenishes the supply of organic silica.
  • Though the amount provided by the absorption of Organic Silicon decreases slowly too, it can be replenished again by another course of treatment if the patient feels their symptoms returning.

Why is it useful in some cases to drink Organic Silicon and apply it to the skin as well? Organic Silicon acts like a rocket to carry organic silica to all parts of the body suffering from disease or disturbance, even if the latter is not causing pain. Drinking it will cure in most cases the cause of the problem, but this may take a little time. It will act first on the fundamental health problems, which are not necessarily the most acutely painful. That is why it is necessary, as explained above, when using it to treat a specific pain, to apply it also on the skin as near to the source of the pain as possible. Directions for use Organic Silicon comes in liquid and can be drunk, and also applied directly to the skin.  Typical Maintenance use: 30mls daily (Three dessertspoons) suggested use for 6 months. For intensive use, 30mls (3 dessertspoons) twice daily. Testimonials The following testimonies are selected from thousands, all in the safekeeping of lawyers, which confirm one of the most remarkable properties of Organic Silicon, namely that when it is taken regularly it not only cures the presenting symptoms but makes a marked improvement in the patient's general health. Acne "My children have been using your product for acne, and are delighted with it." Philippe R. dental surgeon, 10/06/95
Arthritis "I'm 67, and have had arthritis for ten years in the lumbar area, knees and ankles, so I am an invalid and almost completely incapacitated. After two weeks of using Organic Silicon, I have recovered 60% of the capacities typical of someone of my age. I now have a lot less pain and am regaining some flexibility in my joints. I hope to complete this success by continuing the treatment. So this letter is a testimony, which I am ready to authenticate if necessary." Mr R.T., Branttme, 12/08/95
Painful joints, ulcer, herpes "After hearing about Organic Silicon, I ordered some because my back and knees were very painful. These problems disappeared very quickly. My husband had a small ulcer on his leg which I put a compress on morning and evening, and it healed. I also had herpes on the lip, and with some compresses night and morning the pimples disappeared in three days." Mrs G., Bhgles, 3/01/96
Arthritis, headaches, insomnia "I take Organic Silicon 3 times a day and my hands are getting better, I can write better and hold things, which I couldn't do before in spite of the doctors. My headaches are less frequent and my cervical arthritis is much better. I can't believe how effective it is; because of being ill all the time I'd lost 11 kilos in 4 months, but now since taking the Organic Silicon I eat better, I've regained 2 kilos and I sleep better. I don't know how to thank you, but I think of you in my heart." Mrs G., St Loubes, 4/01/96
Arthritis, headaches, digestive problems "I had arthritis in my shoulders, feet and hands, and muscular pain in many other places, and after lots of medical treatments each one as ineffective as the last, I was imprisoned in my suffering. Then I heard about Organic Silicon from friend and decided to try it. It was a total success after a few days of taking it orally (a soupspoon a day for a month). My pain is now only a bad memory, my suffering is over and I feel fit again. But the most extraordinary case is that of my son, who had a serious car crash on 4 September 1995 (8 days in coma, 2 months in Limoges hospital and then nursing home and physiotherapy), with a broken shoulder, broken teeth and cranial injury. On my advice he started using Organic Silicon especially for his headaches which were getting worse, and he was always taking lots of pills, antidepressants and so on. After a few days of applying compresses on the back of his neck and on his liver and drinking Organic Silicon, we could see a great improvement; no more headaches and the stomach, liver and gut back to normal, while he completely stopped the medical treatment." Mrs M.M.F., 23/01/96
Digestive problems, herpes, arthritis "For the last three weeks my husband and I have been using Organic Silicon. I had problems with my liver, pancreas, intestines, plus herpes and cervical arthritis. My husband had serious arthritis in his left knee. We've had very positive results. In my case, my neck pain has gone, I can move my head more easily and my general state of health is much better. As for my husband, the pain in his knee has gone, the joint is easier and he can get about more safely. Organic Silicon has done wonders for us both. We used compresses for two weeks, and this last week we have been taking a soupspoonful morning and night." Mrs J.L., Parempuyre, 1/12/95
Arthritis, blood pressure, digestive problems, headaches "I bought three litres of Organic Silicon for the three of us, and started the treatment immediately, since I had serious arthritis in my left knee, high blood pressure, genetic cholesterol problems, stomach trouble, etc. That day I also had a big patch of herpes beneath my nose, which was healed right away with a few compresses. Within a few days my blood pressure dropped, and so did my husband's. As for the cholesterol, I don't know yet as I have to go for another test. The arthritis in my knee is so much better, I hardly feel it now. My son has got rid of his headaches by using compresses." Mrs J.L., St Astier, 8/01/96
Burns "After seeing its spectacular results on a burn, I am very interested in Organic Silicon." Mrs C., pharmacist, March l996
"I, the undersigned, certify that I have examined Mr Reni A., 80 years old, who had third degree burns on his left forearm. I saw him first on 14 November 1995, just after the burn. One minute after the application of Organic Silicon he said the pain had completely gone. Moreover the skin healed very satisfactorily with the application of compresses. The patient was seen again on 17 November: no problem. Seen again on 21 November: we decided to leave the bandage off. Seen again on 27 November: cicatrisation complete with some scabs but without any pain." Dr Denis G., Bordeaux, November 1995
Digestive problems, poor circulation "I have had serious digestive problems following a gallbladder operation in July 1994. I couldn't keep down what I ate, and vomited a lot of bile. Since starting the treatment with Organic Silicon, all these problems have completely vanished! I can eat anything and digest very well. I also had oedema in my legs and very swollen ankles, but now everything has been healed." Mrs P.B., Thenac, 29/07/95
Herpes, shingles, rheumatism, arthritis "I, the undersigned, certify that in the last 18 months I have recommended to my patients the use of Organic Silicon for the treatment of herpes (about 100 cases). Since I and my relatives have used Organic Silicon, I can say that no other product presently on the market is as effective for this problem. I have also recommended it for shingles (5 cases with good results), and for rheumatism and arthritis (about 20 cases). Most of the people concerned came back completely recovered and asking for more of the product." Mrs A.D., pharmacist, 12/08/91
Psoriasis "'I have had very good results on psoriasis of the scalp which I have suffered from for 40 years. Mrs D.S., Neuil-sur-Mer, 9/04/96
"I, the undersigned, doctor of medicine, certify that my patient Mrs J.L. whom I have treated for cutaneous psoriasis is now completely clear of it, after using exclusively organic silica." Dr C.M., Ste-Colombe, 8/06/88: Testimonies collected and checked by the French paper Sud-Ouest, published 8/10/95 Sprain, articular problems, burn "I pulled a muscle in my thigh and the doctor predicted three weeks of discomfort and pain. A compress soaked in Organic Silicon for one night solved the problem. The next morning I was able to walk and run." Corinne, Bouliac: Corinne knew about Organic Silicon thanks to her father Jacky, from La Teste. A builder and former sportsman, he has had a lot of pain in his joints. "I always have a phial of Organic Silicon in my tool-kit. Not long ago I burned the upper side of my forearm with a red-hot welding torch. A first application of Organic Silicon to clean the bum, which was about 15 cms long, took the pain away immediately. An hour later I put on another compress. The next day there was not a mark to be seen on my skin. I use Organic Silicon also for my joint pains, specially on my knees. They disappear immediately after just one application."
Arthritis, sinusitis "I first used Organic Silicon for a cervical osteo-arthritis following a car crash. Painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs did not have any effect on me. The first compress of Organic Silicon relieved me immediately, and within a month the pains had all gone. To stop an attack of sinusitis I swabbed my forehead and the sides of my nose with some cotton wool soaked in Organic Silicon, which helped a lot, and then I noticed that my skin on the treated area looked prettier. So now I use it every day as make-up remover." Jocelyne, La Teste
Joint problems "I've played a lot of football, and for the last five years ago nothing works any more. My knee joints are stiff and crack, the cartilage is crumbling and breaks up with the friction of my kneecaps which are completely jammed. For four years the doctors have talked about operating and replacing part of the kneecaps with a prosthesis, and say anyway it's incurable. During a holiday at another camp I met a friend who took me to the house of Mr Le Ribault. The latter put a poultice soaked in Organic Silicon on each knee. After a moment I felt a sort of heat in my knees. A quarter of an hour later I stood up, my knees didn't crack any more, they didn't stick or give me any pain. I started doing knee-bends and hopping like a frog; I was so happy and relieved I just couldn't stop!" Thierry, a soldier in the east of France
Bruising, psoriasis "The first time I used Organic Silicon, I was cleaning a nasty wound my dog had got in a fight, but the scissors slipped. Startled by the sudden pain, the dog turned and caught my hand in its teeth. It didn't bite me, but it held my fingers tight like a vice. I got my hand away in the end, but the fingers were numb and I couldn't move them. All this happened late in the afternoon, and it was disastrous because I had a very tricky anaesthesia to do the next day. I asked a colleague to stand by just in case, and I wrapped my fingers in a compress of Organic Silicon. It took me a long time to get to sleep, but in the morning when I woke up the two fingers were working perfectly. Since I'd been told that the product was very effective for skin problems, I rubbed some into my scalp, to see what it could do for the psoriasis that has lurked there since I was a child. It had an immediate and radical effect." Nicole, hospital doctor
Rheumatism, cuts, migraines "Between my wife, my kids and myself, not forgetting my parents and my mother-in-law, I soon had enough occasions for using Organic Silicon to realise that its uses open up an area of research and application that is almost limitless and which must be explored But I'm sure that acknowledging this discovery would only set off endless conflicts, because it threatens too many vested interests. So when I consider that it's the best thing for one of my patients I tell them about it and where to order it if they wish to. I feel comfortable with this intellectually and morally. The documentation on Organic Silicon includes two essential items, established by independent experts: the tests which highlight the therapeutic effectiveness of the product, and others which prove it is completely non-toxic. In this situation I consider that I have the right and even the duty to tell my patients about it when I cannot do anything else for them. The fact that this product is not really a medication or that it is not on general sale or that no-one can really explain how it works, does not concern me. What I am interested in is the results, and these I witness when patients considered incurable come to me for a check-up after this 'parallel' treatment. The improvements and cures which I see with my own eyes give me tremendous satisfaction, and I start to believe I am a good doctor." Pierre, general practitioner
Testimonies collected and checked by the Antiguan paper The Daily Observer, published 21/08/96 "We decided to run our own experiment and asked one of our employees to go and see Dr Le Ribault about an extremely uncomfortable skin disorder he had been suffering from for years. His skin would at times peel off in large patches leaving the exposed area raw and open to possible infection. On the day that our employee went to see Dr Le Ribault, his fingers were raw and he could not touch the affected areas. Dr Le Ribault applied the liquid form of Organic Silicon onto the affected areas and more or less cleaned the wounds with the Organic Silicon. Within 10 minutes our man was able to touch his fingers, and was amazed at the results. Dr Le Ribault asked that our employee continue the treatment regularly for one month, at which time he will be looked at again. Today, one week later, the only complaint from our employee is that with relief in sight after so many years of suffering, he is impatient for a complete recovery and the Organic Silicon is not working fast enough. We also spoke to persons who were staying in the same hotel as Dr Le Ribault, who had experienced the miraculous attentions of the Organic Silicon. Everyone swore that they were cured of painful sunburn within hours, and one person described a deep cut to his finger, that was almost completely cured after wrapping his finger in a cloth soaked in Organic Silicon for only one day. Many people have since been visiting the doctor who is only too happy to treat any ailments with his organic wonder drug." Testimonies (registered and witnessed) collected in Jersey, Channel Islands, December 1997 and January 1998 Back pain "Like most people in our job, we've suffered for years from back pain, specially in winter after a day at sea heaving the boxes around, when it would get so bad that in the evening we could hardly move. One evening when we were coming back from the boats, Looc Le Ribault told us about his product and offered to show us how effective it was. Neither one of us really believed him, but we accepted. After 20 minutes of treatment with the gel, our pains had gone, but we thought they'd soon be back again. But the next day they hadn't come back, nor the day after. Since then we've done the course of treatment with taking the liquid for a month. For the last two months we've been feeling fine, even after a heavy day's work." L.U. and B.E., deep-sea fishermen Back pain, cut "When Le Ribault told me about Organic Silicon, of course I didn't believe it, but I decided to try it anyway because my back was very painful, and for 4 years I'd had to take pain-killers every morning. He advised me to take one tablespoon of the liquid a day. Two days later, I was sleeping much better, I felt much more energy, and best of all my back pain had totally gone. After a month of treatment, I feel I'm completely cured. Of course I've stopped taking all the "classic" medicines which I was taking every day. Last week, while I was doing some odd jobs about the house, a cutter jabbed into my left knee. The wound, 3cm long, 2cm deep and 5mm wide, bled all over the place. I washed it then put over it a gauze soaked in Organic Silicon. An hour later it had completely healed over." F.R., policeman
Diabetes "Having been treated for 15 years for diabetes, I met Le Ribault in the hotel where he is staying. After a month of taking the Organic Silicon, my blood tests have returned to normal." D.F., industrialist
Muscular pain "Last week I had to drive an old bus that didn't have power steering. An hour later my right arm was hurting so much that I couldn't move it. This went on for a week, and then I heard about Organic Silicon. I met Dr Le Ribault, who put on a compress for me which I kept on all night. The next day I didn't feel any more pain, and I could go back to work as usual." T.O., bus driver Regenerative Nutrition advocates a holistic approach to natural health and well being.  The body's ability and power to heal depends upon the totality of diet, nutrition, lifestyle and environmental factors.  No claims for the cure of any disease is intended, or implied.  Always consult a health care practitioner when combating disease states.  The statements in this article have not been approved by the FDA.

Tests made by Professor Jean Cahn, Chairman of SIR International Institute, Professor of Pharmacy and Neurobiology in the University of Pavia, former Director of the Centre for Therapeutic Experimentation in the Htpital de la Pitii-Salpjtrihre in Paris, former Director of the Institute for Experimental Therapy and Clinical Research in Paris. Tests made involving 110 patients suffering from asthma (85% success), various allergies (75% success) and herpes (80% success). It was also proved to be very effective in healing other skin conditions.


1. Nielsen FH: Newer trace elements and possible application in man. In Parasad A (ed): "Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease, Vol.II.
Essential and Toxic Elements". New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 379-399>
2.  Carlisle EM: Silicon. The nutritional essentiality of silicon. Nutr Rev 40:193-198, 1982
3.  Schwarz K: A bound form of silicon in glycosaminoglycans and polyuronides. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 70:1608-1612, 1973
4.  Carlisle EM: Biochemical and morphological changes associated with long bone abnormalities in silicon deficiency. J Nutr 110:1046-1056, 1980
5.  Carlisle EM: Silicon as essential element. Fed Proc 33:1758-1766, 1974
6.  Carlisle EM: Silicon: An essential element for the chick. Science 178:619-621, 1972
7.  Shwarrz K, Mime DB: Growth promoting effects of silicon in rats. Nature 239:333-334, 1972
8.  Sinha A, Smith JC, Soares JH: The effect of dietary calcium on bone metabolism in young and aged female rats using a short-term in vivo model. J Nutr 118:1217-1222, 1988
9.  Scaborn CD, Nielsen FH: Response surface analysis of bone composition changes caused by dietary calcium and silicon. FASEB J 7:A77, 1993
10. Novozamsky I, van Eck R, Houba VJG: A rapid determination of silicon in plant material. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 15:205-211, 1984
11. Lichte FE, Hoppers, Osborn TW: Determination of Si and Al in biological matrices by ICPES. Anal Chem 52:120-124, 1980
12. Nielsen FH, Myron SH, Givand SH, Zimmerman TJ, Ollerich DA: Nickel deficiency in rats. J Natur 105:1607-1630, 1975
13. Ostle B, Mensing RW: "Statistics in Research" Ames, IA: The Iowa State University Press, 1975
14. Mohan S, Linkhart T, Farley J, Baylink D: Bone-derived factors active on bone cells. Calcif Tissue mt 36:S139-S145, 1984
15. Chambers Ti: Osteoblasts release osteoclasts from calcitonin-induced quiescence. J Cell Sci 57:247-260, 1982
16. Urist MR: Bone: Formation by autoinduction. Science 150:893-899, 1965
17. Reiser K, McCormick RJ, Rucker RB: Enzymatic and nonenzimatic cross-linking of collagen and elastin. FASEB J 6:249-2449, 1992
18. Caggiano Ti, Zask A, Bex F: Recent advances in bone metabolism and osteoporosis research. In "Annual Reports in Medical Chemistry". New York: Academic Press, 1991, pp. 201- 210
19. Reddi AH, Anderson WA: Collagenous bone matrix-induced endochondral ossification and hemopoiesies. J Cell Biol 69:557-572, 1976
20. Urist MR, Strates BS: Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dental Res 50 (Supplement 6):1392-1406, 1971
21. Chandrasekhar S, Kleinman HK, Hessel JR, Martin OR, Termine JD, Trelstad RL: Regulation of type I collagen fibnl assembly by link protein and proteoglycans. Collagen Ret Res 4:323-338, 1984
22. Carlisle EM: In vivo requirement for silicon in articular cartilage and connective tissue formation in the chick. J Nutr 106:478-484, 1976
23. Reffit DM, Ogston N, Jugdaohsingh R, et al. Orthosilic acid stimulates collagen type I synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation in human osteoblast-like cells in vitro. Bone. 2003, Feb; 32(2):127-35
24. Jugdaohsingh R, et al. Silicone intake is a major dietary determinant of bone mineral density in men and premenopausal women of the Framingham offspring cohort. Bone. 2003 May; 32(5):S192



Silica is an essential element of living matter. Found in body tissue, the thymus gland, the vascular lining, the adrenal glands, the liver, the spleen, the pancreas and in considerable quantity in hair. With age the body loses its store of organic silica and is unable to replace it from sources outside the body which are predominently mineral silica.

It was originally thought that silica was at worst an environmental contaminant of the human body and at best an element which quickly passed through the body and was excreted. These ideas were based almost entirely upon observations of mineral Silica, which in the form of dust and particles was responsible for a number of serious illnesses such as silicosis.

Silica in mineral form had been used therapeutically, it was however absorbed inefficiently into the human body. It had traditionally gained a place in the pantheon of herbal remedies, being present in Horse's Tail Fern, and some vegetables.

Work over the years on absorbable mineral and organic silica since the nineteen thirties, showed irrefutably that organic silica could be described as an essential nutrient for both humans and other animals. It is necessary for early calcification of bones and animals shells, its deficiency has been found to produce alterations and abnormailities in bone growth. It has also been observed that silica plays a part in the make up of the cells which formed blood vessel walls. Perhaps most importantly, silica has been found to directly affect and form a large part of the connective tissue and cartilage which plays an important part in joints and the illnesses which affect them.

In studies during the nineteen seventies it was found that silica supplementation aided bone and cartilage growth, in 1993, it was reported that treatment with silicon could stimulate bone formation.

By the nineteen nineties, silica formulations were being used by some pharmaceutical companies, on wound dressings and burn dressings because it was recognised that wounds healed more quickly and burns could be stabilised.